losing things a lot
being squeamish or fidgety
making careless mistakes or taking unnecessary risks
having a hard time resisting the temptation
having trouble taking turns
having difficulty getting along with others
poor academic performance
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD is a medical condition that affects a person’s behavior leading to symptoms such:
Lack of attention
It is one of the commonest neurodevelopmental (related to the growth and development of the brain) disorders seen in children. Although ADHD is first seen and diagnosed in children, it may continue in adulthood. The symptoms become more obvious when the child’s environment changes, for instance when they start going to school or when they change their city or school.
Parents of children with ADHD commonly report their child being inattentive, acting without thinking (impulsiveness) or being very active or restless. The symptoms may get better with age although many patients report experiencing the symptoms of ADHD such as anxiety, inability to concentrate, and problems in sleeping well into adulthood.
The exact cause of ADHD is not known. The research is underway to explore what causes ADHD. Studies have revealed the association of certain factors in causing ADHD that include:
Environment (exposure to certain toxins [e.g., lead] during pregnancy or at a young age)
Use of alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy
Premature delivery (delivery before 37 weeks of pregnancy)
Low birth weight
Depending upon the most predominant or strongest symptom experienced by a person, ADHD has three main types:
Predominantly inattentive presentation: In this type, the person is mainly troubled by a lack of attention and finds it difficult to organize or finish a task, pay attention to details, or follow instructions or conversations. The individual gets easily distracted or forgets the details of their daily routines.
Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive presentation: In this variety of ADHD, the individual becomes very talkative and fidgety. They find it hard to sit still for long making it difficult for them to do tasks such as doing their homework or having a meal. Parents of smaller children may find them running, jumping, or climbing all the time. Adults with this type of ADHD report feeling restless and impulsive. Impulsive individuals tend to interrupt others a lot, grab things from people, or speak at inappropriate times. They find it difficult to listen to directions or wait for their turn. An individual with impulsiveness may be more likely to get injured or have accidents.
Combined Presentation: When symptoms of the above two types of ADHD are equally present in the person, it is called the combined presentation of the disorder.
As the symptoms of ADHD in a person keep changing with time, the presentation may also change.