It is important that you know the difference between these two conditions, their symptoms, and how to treat them.
Understanding how kidney infections are related to UTIs can help you prevent future occurrences of either condition.
It's important to understand the differences between the symptoms of these two conditions and the steps you can take to prevent further damage.
UTI, or urinary tract infection, happens when bacteria enter into any part of your urinary system. This system includes your urethra, bladder, and kidneys.
These bacteria grow and multiply, which causes an infection.
If left untreated, the bacteria that cause your urinary tract infection can move up from your urinary system to your kidneys. This causes pyelonephritis, the scientific term for kidney infection. However, UTIs are not the only source of kidney infections.
Symptoms of UTIs and kidney infections
While UTIs and kidney infections are related, they can have different symptoms. Not all of these symptoms happen every time, and they may show up at different times. Your symptoms might begin suddenly. Some of these may simply be early warnings.
Symptoms of urinary tract infection
You may have an uncomplicated urinary tract infection if you start experiencing some or all of the following symptoms:
Pain or a burning feeling when you urinate
Sudden urge to urinate more often than normal, especially at night
Blood in your urine
Lower abdominal pain
In children or infants, watch out for:
Irritable and refuses to feed.
Wetting themselves or the bed, even if potty-trained.
Symptoms of kidney infection
If you have a kidney infection, you may notice one or more of the following symptoms:
Nausea and/or vomiting
Pain in your back, side(s), or groin
Urinating more often than usual
An urgent need to urinate, even if you just went
Pain or burning sensation when urinating
Pus or blood in your urine
Cloudy or bad-smelling pee
It is important that you call your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms.
If you are currently taking medication to treat a UTI and you have any of these symptoms, call your doctor as soon as possible.
There are several causes and risk factors for UTIs and kidney infections.
Some risk factors are beyond your control, but others are not. Reducing your risks can even help you prevent an aneurysm or a stroke.
Causes of urinary tract infection
Urinary tract infections mostly occur when your urinary tract is infected by bacteria from your skin or the digestive system. These bacteria may enter your urinary system through your urethra when you wipe your bottom or while you are having sex.
You may also be more likely to get a urinary tract infection if you:
Have a condition that is blocking your urinary tract, such as kidney stones
Have difficulty emptying your bladder fully
Have a weakened immune system
Have a urinary catheter
Are male and have an enlarged prostate gland
Women may be more likely to get UTIs because their urethra is shorter than and closer to their anus than men’s. Women may also be more likely to get UTIs after sexual intercourse if they use a contraceptive diaphragm or condoms that are coated with spermicide.
Causes of kidney infection
Kidney infections occur when bacteria get into the urethra and travel up into your bladder and then up into your kidneys. They are typically caused by a bacterium called Escherichia coli, or E. coli, which normally lives in your bowel.
E. coli is harmless when in your bowel, but it will cause infection if it finds its way into your urinary system. You may get a kidney infection during sex or when wiping your bottom if you are not careful.
Kidney infections may also occur without traveling up from your urinary tract. This can occur if you have:
Kidney problems like kidney stones
A weakened immune system
Only a licensed healthcare professional can diagnose a urinary tract or kidney infection.
To diagnose a urinary tract infection, your doctor will carefully review your medical history and do a physical examination to check for signs and symptoms.
They may also order tests like:
Urinalysis: After taking your urine sample, your doctor will take it for lab testing to check for red blood cells and white blood cells, bacteria, and proteins. The presence of these may indicate you have a UTI.
Urine culture: Urine cultures aren’t a regular part of a typical urinalysis, so your doctor may do one of these too. In a urine culture, a urine sample is taken to a lab where bacteria are grown from it, which can help doctors diagnose which bacteria are causing the UTI.
If UTIs become a recurring problem for you, your doctor may order additional tests to examine your bladder and urinary tract adn to check for blockages like tumors or kidney stones.
Kidney infection diagnosis
To diagnose a kidney infection your doctor will take your medical history, a physical exam, and some tests. They may ask if you have had health conditions that might make you prone to kidney infections.
Doing a physical exam will help your doctor detect any signs and symptoms of kidney infection.
If you are male, your doctor may perform a digital rectal examination (DRE). This checks if you have a swollen or enlarged prostate that may be blocking your bladder.
Some of the tests your doctor may do include:
A urinalysis to check for bacteria and other cells in your urine that might indicate an infection.
A urine culture to find out what type of bacteria is causing the infection and determine the best treatment.
A computerized tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or ultrasound.
After making a diagnosis and determining that you have a urinary tract infection, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to get rid of the bacteria causing your infection.
You should inform your doctor if you have any drug allergies before taking the medication. Call your doctor if you develop any side effects like rashes while taking your antibiotic.
For kidney infections, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to get rid of the bacteria causing the infections.
Your doctor may also give you pain relievers to manage the painful symptoms that can accompany a kidney infection. Depending on the severity of your infection and other factors in your personal medical history, you may need to be admitted to the hospital for further monitoring.
It's also important that you drink a lot of fluids. This will help prevent dehydration and flush the bacteria out of your kidneys.